Components of a Blood Profile

CMC provides normal reference ranges for each test to help you interpret your results. If your results are above or below these established levels, we encourage you to consult your health care provider. A high or low result may not necessarily indicate a problem; however a follow-up consult with your health care provider to dicsuss your test results is encouraged. If you do not have a regular health care provider, please consider making an appointment with one of our providers at Coulee Family Medicine.

GLUCOSE A measurement of sugar in the blood. A high level may indicate diabetes or may be seen if done shortly after a meal. Low levels are rarely significant. If your result is over 200 mg/dl or less than 50 mg/dl check with your physician.
BUN / CREATININE These substances are waste products of metabolism. Since they are secreted by the kidney, a high level may indicate abnormal renal function.
CALCIUM Blood calcium is tested to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a range of  conditions relating to the bones, heart, nerves, kidneys and teeth. When an abnormal calcium result is obtained, it is viewed as an indicator of some kind of underlying problem.
These tests measure the type and amount of protein in the blood and provide an index of health and nutrition.
TOTAL BILIRUBIN A test for jaundice and a measure of liver function.
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE An enzyme that is affected by liver and bone metabolism. It is high during periods of rapid growth. (Childhood / adolescence)
AST (SGOT) This is an enzyme that is elevated in liver, muscle, and heart tissue disorders.
ALT Test primarily used to diagnose liver disease and monitor a course of certain treatments.
Minerals in the blood affecting many body systems. May be abnormal in disease of the kidney and/or adrenal glands. Commonly called electrolytes.
CARBON DIOXIDE End product of metabolism excreted by the lungs. May be altered by pulmonary disease.
BUN/CREAT RATIO Similar to single tests for BUN and Creatinine.
ANION GAP A measure of PH or acid/base balance of the body. Abnormal values can reflect disease processes.
CHOLESTEROL Total cholesterol is made up of other components that contain cholesterol such as HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides. Persons with elevated cholesterol are at increased risk of developing heart disease.
HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins which enable lipids like cholesterol and triglycerides to be transported within the water based blood stream. In healthy individuals, about thirty percent of blood cholesterol is carried by HDL. HDL is considered "good" cholesterol, so higher levels indicate a decreased risk of developing heart disease.
LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) is another one of the major types of lipoproteins that transport cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to the peripheral tissue through the water based blood stream. LDL is considered "bad" cholesterol and high levels indicate an increased risk of developing heart disease.
TRIGLYCERIDES Triglycerides are one of the major types of fats in the body. Levels increase dramatically following a meal. Results are used in calculating LDL and are valid only if you have been fasting at the time of sample collection.
TSH TSH is secreted by the pituitary gland and regulates the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. Elevated TSH values  are found in primary hypothyroidism while low values are found in patients with  hyperthyroidism and in patients on excessive thyroxine replacement.
PSA Prostate Specific Antigen is a substance produced by the prostate and a small amount can be measured in normal men. If elevated above normal levels, further studies may be warranted.
WBC: The White Blood Cell count is usually increased with bacterial infection, inflammation, and certain types of leukemias. It may be decreased after stress, burns, trauma, uremia, and certain types of leukemias and some viral infections.
RBC / HGB / HCT: The Red Blood Cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit are increased by stress, shock, polycythemia, heart and pulmonary disease, reduced fluid intake, or excessive fluid loss. They may be decreased by anemia, internal bleeding, folate or B12 deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, acute or chronic blood loss, alcohol, and drugs.
A1c The A1c test evaluates the average amount of glucose in the blood over the last 2 to 3 months.  It does this by measuring the concentration of glycated (also often called glycosylated) hemoglobin A1c.  The test may be used to screen for and diagnose diabetes or rist of developing diabetes.  
Vitamin D The main role of vitamin D is to help regulate blood levels of calcium, phosphorus, and (to a lesser extent) magnesium.  Vitamin D is vital for the growth and health of bone; without it, bones will be soft, malformed, and unable to repair themselves normally.


If you are interested in more information about your test results, we suggest visiting the following websites: or